William Shakespeare's Othello is the tale of the green-eyed monster.
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Othello, the Moor of Venice

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Act I. Scene III.

Scene III.—A Council Chamber. The DUKE
and Senators sitting at a table. Officers at-

Duke. There is no composition in these news
That gives them credit
First Sen. Indeed, they are disproportion'd,
My letters say a hundred and seven galleys.
Duke. And mine, a hundred and forty.
Sec. Sen. And mine, two hundred:
But though they jump not on a just account,—
As in these cases, where the aim reports,
'Tis oft with difference,—yet do they all confirm
A Turkish fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus.
Duke. Nay, it is possible enough to judg-
I do not so secure me in the error,
But the main article I do approve
In fearful sense.
Sailor. [Within.] What, ho! what, ho! what,
Off. A messenger from the galleys.

Enter a Sailor.
Duke. Now, what's the business?
Sail. The Turkish preparation makes for
So was I bid report here to the state
By Signior Angelo.
Duke. How say you by this change?
First Sen. This cannot be,
By no assay of reason; 'tis a pageant
To keep us in false gaze. When we consider
The importancy of Cyprus to the Turk,
And let ourselves again but understand,
That as it more concerns the Turk than Rhodes,
So may he with more facile question bear it,
For that it stands not in such war-like brace,
But altogether lacks the abilities
That Rhodes is dress'd in: if we make thought
of this,
We must not think the Turk is so unskilful
To leave that latest which concerns him first,
Neglecting an attempt of case and gain,
To wake and wage a danger profitless.
Duke. Nay, in all confidence, he's not for
Off. Here is more news.

Enter a Messenger.
Mess. The Ottomites, reverend and gracious,
Steering with due course toward the isle of
Have there injointed them with an after fleet.
First Sen. Ay, so I thought. How many, as
you guess?
Mess. Of thirty sail; and now they do re-stem
Their backward course, bearing with frank ap-
Their purposes toward Cyprus. Signior Mon-
Your trusty and most valiant servitor,
With his free duty recommends you thus,
And prays you to believe him.
Duke. 'Tis certain then, for Cyprus.
Marcus Luccicos, is not he in town? 44
First Sen. He's now in Florence.
Duke. Write from us to him; post-post-
| haste dispatch.
First Sen. Here comes Brabantio and the
valiant Moor.

RODERIGO, and Officers.
Duke. Valiant Othello, we must straight em-
ploy you
Against the general enemy Ottoman.
[To BRABANTIO.] I did not see you; welcome,
gentle signior;
We lack'd your counsel and your help to-night.
Bra. So did I yours. Good your grace, par-
don me;
Neither my place nor aught I heard of business
Hath rais'd me from my bed, nor doth the
general care
Take hold of me, for my particular grief
Is of so flood-gate and o'erbearing nature
That it engluts and swallows other sorrows
And it is still itself.
Duke. Why, what's the matter?
Bra. My daughter! O! my daughter.
Duke. & Sen.} Dead?
Bra. Ay, to me;
She is abus'd, stol'n from me, and corrupted
By spells and medicines bought of mounte-
For nature so preposterously to err,
Being not deficient, blind, or lame of sense,
Sans witchcraft could not.
Duke. Whoe'er he be that in this foul pro-
Hath thus beguil'd your daughter of herself
And you of her, the bloody book of law
You shall yourself read in the bitter letter
After your own sense; yea, though our proper
Stood in your action.
Bra. Humbly I thank your Grace.
Here is the man, this Moor; whom now, it
Your special mandate for the state affairs,
Hath hither brought.
Duke. & Sen.} We are very sorry for it.
Duke. [To OTHELLO.] What, in your own
part, can you say to this?
Bra. Nothing, but this is so.
Oth. Most potent, grave, and reverend sig-
My very noble and approv'd good masters,
That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter,
It is most true; true, I have married her:
The very head and front of my offending
Hath this extent, no more. Rude am I in my
And little bless'd with the soft phrase of peace;
For since these arms of mine had seven years'.
Till now some nine moons wasted, they have us'd
Their dearest action in the tented field;
And little of this great world can I speak,
More than pertains to feats of broil and battle;
And therefore little shall I grace my cause
In speaking for myself. Yet, by your gracious
I will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver
Of my whole course of love; what drugs, what
What conjuration, and what mighty magic,
For such proceeding I am charg'd withal,
I won his daughter.
Bra. A maiden never bold;
Of spirit so still and quiet, that her motion
Blush'd at herself; and she, in spite of nature,
Of years, of country, credit, every thing,
To fall in love with what she fear'd to look
It is a judgment maim'd and most imperfect
That will confess perfection so could err
Against all rules of nature, and must be driven
To find out practices of cunning hell,
Why this should be. I therefore vouch again
That with some mixtures powerful o'er the
Or with some dram conjur'd to this effect,
He wrought upon her.
Duke. To vouch this, is no proof,
Without more certain and more overt test
Than these thin habits and poor likelihoods
Of modern seeming do prefer against him.
First Sen. But, Othello, speak:
Did you by indirect and forced courses
Subdue and poison this young maid's affections;
Or came it by request and such fair question
As soul to soul affordeth?
Oth. I do beseech you,
Send for the lady to the Sagittary,
And let her speak of me before her father:
If you do find me foul in her report,
The trust, the office I do hold of you,
Not only take away, but let your sentence
Even fall upon my life.
Duke. Fetch Desdemona hither.
Oth. Ancient, conduct them; you best know
the place.
[Exeunt IAGO and Attendants.
And, till she come, as truly as to heaven
I do confess the vices of my blood,
So justly to your grave ears I'll present
How I did thrive in this fair lady's love,
And she in mine.
Duke. Say it, Othello.
Oth. Her father lov'd me; oft invited me;
Still question'd me the story of my life
From year to year, the battles, sieges, fortunes
That I have pass'd.
I ran it through, even from my boyish days
To the very moment that he bade me tell it;
Wherein I spake of most disastrous chances,
Of moving accidents by flood and field,
Of hair-breadth 'scapes i' the imminent deadly
Of being taken by the insolent foe
And sold to slavery, of my redemption thence
And portance in my travel's history;
Wherein of antres vast and desarts idle,
Rough quarries, rocks and hills whose heads
touch heaven,
It was my hint to speak, such was the process;
And of the Cannibals that each other eat,
The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads
Do grow beneath their shoulders. This to hear
Would Desdemona seriously incline;
But still the house-affairs would draw her
Which ever as she could with haste dispatch,
She'd come again, and with a greedy ear
Devour up my discourse. Which I observing,
Took once a pliant hour, and found good means
To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart
That I would all my pilgrimage dilate,
Whereof by parcels she had something heard,
But not intentively: I did consent;
And often did beguile her of her tears,
When I did, speak of some distressful stroke
That my youth suffer'd. My story being done,
She gave me for my pains a world of sighs:
She swore, in faith, 'twas strange, 'twas passing
'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful:
She wish'd she had not heard it, yet she wish'd
That heaven had made her such a man; she
thank'd me,
And bade me, if I had a friend that lov'd her,
I should but teach him how to tell my story,
And that would woo her. Upon this hint I
She lov'd me for the dangers I had pass'd,
And I lov'd her that she did pity them.
This only is the witchcraft I have us'd:
Here comes the lady; let her witness it.

Enter DESDEMONA, IAGO, and Attendants.
Duke. I think this tale would win my daugh-
ter too.
Good Brabantio,
Take up this mangled matter at the best;
Men do their broken weapons rather use
Than their bare hands.
Bra. I pray you, hear her speak:
If she confess that she was half the wooer,
Destruction on my head, if my bad blame
Light on the man! Come hither, gentle mis-
Do you perceive in all this noble company
Where most you owe obedience?
Des. My noble father,
I do perceive here a divided duty:
To you I am bound for life and education;
My life and education both do learn me
How to respect you; you are the lord of duty;
I am hitherto your daughter: but here's my
And so much duty as my mother show'd
To you, preferring you before her father,
So much I challenge that I may profess
Due to the Moor my lord.
Bra. God be with you! I have done.
Please it your Grace, on to the state affairs:
I had rather to adopt a child than get it.
Come hither, Moor:
I here do give thee that with all my heart
Which, but thou hast already, with all my heart
I would keep from thee. For your sake, jewel,
I am glad at soul I have no other child;
For thy escape would teach me tyranny,
To hang clogs on them. I have done, my lord.
Duke. Let me speak like yourself and lay a
Which as a grize or step, may help these lovers
Into your favour.
When remedies are past, the griefs are ended
By seeing the worst, which late on hopes
To mourn a mischief that is past and gone
Is the next way to draw new mischief on.
What cannot be preserv'd when Fortune takes
Patience her injury a mockery makes.
The robb'd that smiles steals something from
the thief;
He robs himself that spends a bootless grief.
Bra. So let the Turk of Cyprus us beguile;
We lose it not so long as we can smile.
He bears the sentence well that nothing bears
But the free comfort which from thence he hears;
But he bears both the sentence and the sorrow
That, to pay grief, must of poor patience borrow.
These sentences, to sugar, or to gall,
Being strong on both sides, are equivocal:
But words are words; I never yet did hear
That the bruis'd heart was pierced through the
I humbly beseech you, proceed to the affairs of
Duke. The Turk with a most mighty prepara-
tion makes for Cyprus. Othello, the fortitude of
the place is best known to you; and though
we have there a substitute of most allowed
sufficiency, yet opinion, a sovereign mistress of
effects, throws a more safer voice on you: you
must therefore be content to slubber the gloss of
your new fortunes with this more stubborn and
boisterous expedition.
Oth. The tyrant custom, most grave senators,
Hath made the flinty and steel couch of war
My thrice-driven bed of down: I do agnize
A natural and prompt alacrity
I find in hardness, and do undertake
These present wars against the Ottomites.
Most humbly therefore bending to your state,
I crave fit disposition for my wife,
Due reference of place and exhibition,
With such accommodation and besort
As levels with her breeding.
Duke. If you please,
Be't at her father's.
Bra. I'll not have it so.
Oth. Nor I.
Des. Nor I; I would not there reside,
To put my father in impatient thoughts
By being in his eye. Most gracious duke,
To my unfolding lend your gracious ear;
And let me find a charter in your voice
To assist my simpleness.
Duke. What would you, Desdemona?
Des. That I did love the Moor to live with him,
My downright violence and storm of fortunes
May trumpet to the world; my heart's subdu'd
Even to the very quality of my lord;
I saw Othello's visage in his mind,
And to his honours and his valiant parts
Did I my soul and fortunes consecrate.
So that, dear lords, if I be left behind,
A moth of peace, and he go to the war,
The rites for which I love him are bereft me,
And I a heavy interim shall support
By his dear absence. Let me go with him.
Oth. Let her have your voices.
Vouch with me, heaven, I therefore beg it not
To please the palate of my appetite,
Nor to comply with heat,—the young affects
In me defunct,—and proper satisfaction,
But to be free and bounteous to her mind;
And heaven defend your good souls that you think
I will your serious and great business scant
For she is with me. No, when light-wing'd toys
Of feather'd Cupid seel with wanton dulness
My speculative and offic'd instruments,
That my disports corrupt and taint my business,
Let housewives make a skillet of my helm,
And all indign and base adversities
Make head against my estimation!
Duke. Be it as you shall privately determine,
Either for her stay or going. The affair cries
And speed must answer it.
First Sen. You must away to-night.
Oth. With all my heart.
Duke. At nine i' the morning here we'll meet
Othello, leave some officer behind,
And he shall our commission bring to you;
With such things else of quality and respect
As doth import you.
Oth. So please your Grace, my ancient;
A man he is of honesty and trust:
To his conveyance I assign my wife,
With what else needful your good grace shall
To be sent after me.
Duke. Let it be so.
Good night to every one. [To BRABANTIO.] And,
noble signior,
If virtue no delighted beauty lack,
Your son-in-law is far more fair than black.
First Sen. Adieu, brave Moor! use Desdemona
Bra. Look to her. Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:
She has deceiv'd her father, and may thee.
[Exeunt DUKE, Senators, Officers, &c.
Oth. My life upon her faith! Honest Iago,
My Desdemona must I leave to thee:
I prithee, let thy wife attend on her;
And bring them after in the best advantage.
Come, Desdemona; I have but an hour
Of love, of worldly matters and direction,
To spend with thee: we must obey the time.
Rod. Iago!
Iago. What sayst thou, noble heart?
Rod. What will I do, think'st thou?
Iago. Why, go to bed, and sleep.
Rod. I will incontinently drown myself.
Iago. Well, if thou dost, I shall never love
thee after. Why, thou silly gentleman!
Rod. It is silliness to live when to live is
torment; and then have we a prescription to die
when death is our physician.
Iago. O! villanous; I have looked upon the
world for four times seven years, and since I
could distinguish betwixt a benefit and an
injury, I never found man that knew how to love
himself. Ere I would say, I would drown myself
for the love of a guinea-hen, I would change my
humanity with a baboon.
Rod. What should I do? I confess it is my
shame to be so fond; but it is not in my virtue
to amend it.
Iago. Virtue! a fig! 'tis in ourselves that we
are thus, or thus. Our bodies are our gardens, to
the which our wills are gardeners; so that if we
will plant nettles or sow lettuce, set hyssop and
weed up thyme, supply it with one gender of herbs
or distract it with many, either to have it sterile
with idleness or manured with industry, why,
the power and corrigible authority of this lies in
our wills. If the balance of our lives had not
one scale of reason to poise another of sensual-
ity, the blood and baseness of our natures would
conduct us to most preposterous conclusions;
but we have reason to cool our raging motions,
our carnal stings, our unbitted lusts, whereof I
take this that you call love to be a sect or scion.
Rod. It cannot be.
Iago. It is merely a lust of the blood and a
permission of the will. Come, be a man. Drown
thyself! drown cats and blind puppies. I have
professed me thy friend, and I confess me knit
to thy deserving with cables of perdurable tough-
ness; I could never better stead thee than now.
Put money in thy purse; follow these wars;
defeat thy favour with a usurped beard; I say,
put money in thy purse. It cannot be that
Desdemona should long continue her love to the
Moor,—put money in thy purse,—nor he his to
her. It was a violent commencement in her,
and thou shalt see an answerable sequestration;
put but money in thy purse. These Moors are
changeable in their wills;—fill thy purse with
money:—the food that to him now is as luscious
as locusts, shall be to him shortly as bitter as
coloquintida. She must change for youth: when
she is sated with his body, she will find the error
of her choice. She must have change, she must:
therefore put money in thy purse. If thou wilt
needs damn thyself, do it a more delicate way
than drowning. Make all the money thou canst.
If sanctimony and a frail vow betwixt an erring
barbarian and a supersubtle Venetian be not
too hard for my wits and all the tribe of hell,
thou shalt enjoy her; therefore make money. A
pox of drowning thyself! it is clean out of the
way: seek thou rather to be hanged in compass-
ing thy joy than to be drowned and go without her.
Rod. Wilt thou be fast to my hopes, if I de-
pend on the issue?
Iago. Thou art sure of me: go, make money.
I have told thee often, and I re-tell thee again
and again, I hate the Moor: my cause is hearted:
thine hath no less reason. Let us be conjunc-
tive in our revenge against him; if thou canst
cuckold him, thou dost thyself a pleasure, me a
sport. There are many events in the womb of
time which will be delivered. Traverse; go:
provide thy money. We will have more of this
to-morrow. Adieu.
Rod. Where shall we meet i' the morning?
Iago. At my lodging.
Rod. I'll be with thee betimes.
Iago. Go to; farewell. Do you hear, Roderigo?
Rod. What say you?
Iago. No more of drowning, do you hear?
Rod. I am changed. I'll sell all my land.
Iago. Go to; farewell! put money enough in
your purse. [Exit RODERIGO.
Thus do I ever make my fool my purse;
For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane,
If I would time expend with such a snipe
But for my sport and profit. I hate the Moor,
And it is thought abroad that 'twixt my sheets
He has done my office: I know not if't be true,
But I, for mere suspicion in that kind,
Will do as if for surety. He holds me well;
The better shall my purpose work on him.
Cassio's a proper man; let me see now:
To get his place; and to plume up my will
In double knavery; how, how? Let's see:
After some time to abuse Othello's ear
That he is too familiar with his wife:
He hath a person and a smooth dispose
To be suspected; framed to make women false.
The Moor is of a free and open nature,
That thinks men honest that but seem to be so,
And will as tenderly be led by the nose
As asses are.
I have't; it is engender'd: hell and night
Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's
light. [Exit.
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